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成人英语三级考试语法笔记:反意疑问句

2017年09月17日来源:上海成考网 阅读:
 反意疑问句反意疑问句又叫附加疑问句。反义疑问句提出情况和看法,问对方同意不同意,这种问句都由两部分组成,前一部分用陈述句的形式,后一部分是一个附着在前一部分上的简短问句,如前一部分为肯定形式,后一部分通常用否定形式,前一部分为否定形式,后一部分就用肯定形式,两部分的时态要一致。

反意疑问句主要有下列两种形式:

1.肯定的陈述句 + 否定的附加疑问。
    例如:That car is running fast, isn't it?

2.否定的陈述句 + 肯定的附加疑问。
    例如:That car isn't running fast, is it?

几点应该注意的情况:

1.当陈述句部分的主语是 everybody, everyone, someone, no one, nobody, somebody 等合成词时, 加疑问部分中的主语 在非正式文体中往往用 they。
    例如:Nobody phoned while I was out, did they?

     Everyone enjoyed the party, didn't they?

     Somebody borrowed my pen yesterday, didn't they?

2.当陈述部分是 there- 存在句时,附加疑问句部分的动词用肯定形式。
    例如:There's no help for it, is there?

          There's something wrong, isn't there?

3.陈述部分带有 seldom, hardly, never, rarely, few, little, nowher, nothing 等否定词或半否定词时,附加疑问部分的动词用肯定形式。
    例如:Bob rarely got drunk, did he?

     Few people know him, do they?

     She seldom goes to the cinema, does she?

4.如果陈述部分是 I'm … 结构,附加疑问部分一般用aren't I.
    例如:I'm late, aren't I?

5.如果陈述部分以不定代词one 作主语,附加疑问句部分的主语在正式场合用 one,在非正式场合用 you。
    例如:One can't be too careful, can one/can you?

6.当陈述部分是一个带有 that-分词作宾语的主从结构时,附加疑问部分一般应与主语和谓语动词保持对应关系。
    例如:She says (that) I did it, doesn't she?

但是,当陈述部分的主句是 I suppose, I think, I believe 等结构时,附加疑问部分则往往与that-

分句中的主语和谓语动词保持对应关系,但要注意否定的转移。
    例如:I suppose (that) he's serious, isn't he?

     I don't think (that) she cares, doesn't she?

7.当陈述部分带有表示“所有”含义的动词 have 时,附加疑问部分既可以用have形式,也可用do 形式;如果陈述部分的动词是have的否定形式,附加疑问部分是用have形式还是用do形式,取决于陈述部分的动词形式。
    例如:You have a Rolls-Royce, haven't you/don't you?

     He hasn't a lot of time to spare, has he?

     Miss Smith doesn't have any money in her pocket, does she?

当陈述部分的have不表示“所有”而表示其他含义时,附加疑问部分则用do形式。
    例如:You often have headaches, don't you?

     She had a good time yesterday, didn't she?

8.陈述部分带有情态动词 ought to时,附加疑问部分在英国英语中仍用ought to形式,但在美国英语中常用should形式。
    例如:The child ought to be punished, oughtn't he?

     We ought to go there, shouldn't we?

9.陈述部分带有情态动词used to时,附加疑问部分可用used to形式或did形式。
    例如:The Greens used to live in the country, usedn't they?

     He used to smoke fifty cigarettes a day, didn't he?

10.陈述部分带有情态动词needn't时,附加疑问部分常用need,但有时也可用must。
     例如:You needn't go yet, need you?

      He needn't do that, must he?

11.陈述部分带有情态动词must表示“必须”时,附加疑问部分用mustn't。
     例如:You must work hard next term, mustn't you?

当陈述部分的must表示“有必要”时,附加疑问部分则用needn't。
     例如:You must go home right now, needn't you?

当mustn't表示“禁止”时,附加疑问部分一般用must。
     例如:You mustn't walk on grass, must you?

当陈述部分的must 表示“一定”、“想必”等推测意义时,附加疑问部分不用must,而要根据陈述部分的不定式结构采用相应的主动词或助动词形式。
     例如:He must be very tired, isn't he? (He must be very tired = I'm sure he is very tired.)

      He must have waited here for a long time, hasn't he? (He must have waited…= I'm sure he has waited …)

      You must have seen the play last week, didn't you? (You must have seen…= I am sure you saw…)

12.在由“祈使句+附加疑问”构成的附加疑问问句中,附加疑问部分一般用will you, won't you, would you, 有时也可用can you, can't you, why don't you, could you 等。
     例如:Don't move the chair, will you?

      Be quiet, would you?

      Give me some cigarettes, can you?

      Be quiet, can't you?

但是,以let's 开首的祈使句,附加疑问部分用shall we。
    例如:Let's go camping, shall we?

     Let's stop here, shall we?

以Let us开首的祈使句,如果含义是 allow us,不包括听话人在内时,附加疑问部分则用will you。
    例如:Let us go now, will you?

     Let us have a look at your book, will you?

13.当陈述部分是并列句,疑问部分通常与最临近的分句保持一致。
    例如:He is a teacher,but his wife is an engineer,isn't she?
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